Last revision: July 14, 2016
Contact details: Margreet van Marle (, Guido van der Werf (

This package contains netCDF files of biomass burning emissions.

BB4CMIP6 is available from the project web site (CMIP6, and described in Van Marle et al. (2017).

Our aim is to provide historic burning biomass estimates, by combining satellite-observed fire emissions with regional proxy datasets (charcoal for North America and Europe, and visibility observations for Indonesia and the Arc of Deforestation) and modeled data. The modeled data is the result from Fire-MIP and data of the following models are used: SIMFIRE-GDP, CLM, INFERNO, JSBach-SPITFIRE, LPJ-GUESS-SPITFIRE, ORCHIDEE-SPITFIRE

This fire emissions dataset was produced by the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, cluster Earth and Climate (

The package contains monthly estimates of open biomass burning emissions (forests, grasslands, agricultural waste burning on fields, peatlands). The bulk emissions for the following species: BC, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, NH3, NMVOC, NOx, OC, and SO2 are provided. The NMVOC bulk emissions consists of the scum of C2H6, CH3OH, C2H5OH, C3H8, C2H2, C2H4, C3H6, C5H8, C10H16, C7H8, C6H6, C8H10, Toluene_lump, Higher_Alkenes, Higher_Alkanes, CH2O, C2H4O, C3H6O, NH3, C2H6S, HCN, HCOOH, CH3COOH, MEK, CH3COCHO, HOCH2CHO. These NMVOCs are also provided separately

Species emissions are calculated using dry matter estimates and emission factors developed for GFED - More information including lumping and molecular weights can be found in

  • Be careful not to double count deforestation carbon emissions, they are included in the bulk estimates per specie, but several models also have deforestation carbon emissions based on for example historical deforestation rates.
  • Please check if the global annual emissions for the first and last year of the file are correct. These are provided in the attributes [annual_total_firestyar_Tg_yr] and [annual_total_lastyear_Tg_yr]
  • All files are named “biomass_burning_carbon_flux” but resemble other species as well.
'CH4', 'SO2', 'NOx', 'N2O', 'CO', 'BC', 'OC', 'NH3', 'NMVOCs', 'CO2'
  • Per <specie_name> 2 files: 1 covering time period 175001-184912, 1 covering 185001-201512
  • NMOVCs is the sum of all NMVOC species listed below at NMVOC_<nmvoc_specie_name>
biomass burning emissions per nmvoc specie
  • Per <nmvoc_specie_name> 2 files: 1 covering time period 175001-184912, 1 covering 185001-201512
  • <nmvoc_specie_name>
    'C2H6' , 'CH3OH' , 'C2H5OH' , 'C3H8' , 'C2H2' , 'C2H4' , 'C3H6' , 'C5H8' , 'C10H16' , 'C7H8' , 'C6H6' , 'C8H10' , 'Toluene_lump' , 'Higher_Alkenes' , 'Higher_Alkanes' , 'CH2O' , 'C2H4O' , 'C3H6O' , 'NH3' , 'C2H6S' , 'HCN' , 'HCOOH' , 'CH3COOH' , 'MEK' , 'CH3COCHO', 'HOCH2CHO'
Percentage of bulk emissions related to agricultural waste burning.
  • Annual percentages from 1750-2016
Percentage of bulk emissions related to fires used in the deforestation.
  • Annual percentages from 1750-2016
  • Beware of double-counting of CO2 emissions if your model already accounts for deforestation carbon emissions.
Specifies the datasource per year for 1750-2015
  1. 0 - Ocean/No fire emissions
  2. 1 - Based on FIRE-MIP model output constrained by charcoal records, scaled to Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) version 4s
  3. 2 - Based on FIRE-MIP model output, scaled to Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) version 4s
  4. 3 - Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) version 4s
area of the 0.25° x 0.25° grid cells in m2